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托福阅读中的推断题到底推理什么?

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托福阅读中的推断题到底推理什么?
 

在托福阅读考试当中,推断题学生的错误率往往比较高,纷纷表示把握不住考试的重点。因此,首先我们要了解推断题到底要求我们推断什么?解决这个问题,有助于我们理解推断题的考点和考试思路。

 



推断是基于证据的猜想,它要求读者基于作者在文章中提供的信息推断出文章中未明显的内容。根据这个定义,我们知道推断至少有两个过程:


首先,需要基于证据,也就是阅读原文。

其次,才是合理推断,也就是信息变化。


一般来说,推断题要求推断出文章中未明显的内容,其中包括三个方面:

1)文章和段落的主题和主旨;

2)作者的态度和目的;

3)文章中相应信息的发展和作用;


下面我们来举例说明:


1)文章和段落的主题和主旨;

The organization of the passage can best be described as

A.  the presentation of an argument followed by the evidence for and against it

B.  a description of a phenomenon followed by several possible theories about how it develops

C.  the definition of a psychological term followed by a history of its usage

D.  an explanation of a process followed by a discussion of its practical applications


这题比较典型,直接问段落的主旨。答案显示,A是呈现观点,B是描述现象,C是下定义,D是解释过程。因此,段落的主旨结构,是推断题的重要考点之一。




2)作者的态度和目的;


In paragraph 6, the author compares the energy costs of vigorous begging with the potential gain in calories from such begging in order to 


A.  explain why begging for food vigorously can lead to faster growth and increased size

B.  explain how begging vigorously can increase an individual’s chance of propagating its own genes

C.  point out a weakness in a possible explanation for why nestlings do not always beg vigorously

D.  argue that the benefits of vigorous begging outweigh any possible disadvantages


这题,题干中问作者比较信息A和B(compare...with...)的目的,compares the energy costs of vigorous begging with the potential gain in calories from such begging,答案显示,A是解释结果;B是解释趋势,C是指出原因,D是比较结果,可见是直接为了原文“观点“服务。题目又回到了对于文章主旨和观点的阅读范畴。






3)文章中相应信息的发展和作用;


Which of the following can be inferred from paragraphs 2 and 3 about the Volcanic eruptions of the late first millennium B.C.?

A.  They were more frequent than historians once thought.

B.  They may have done more damage to Teotihuacán than to neighboring centers.

C.  They may have played a major role in the rise of Teotihuacán.

D.  They increased the need for extensive irrigation in the Teotihuacán Valley.


这题,题干问某个信息,the Volcanic eruptions of the late first millennium B.C.的推断,答案显示,A是频率,B是损害,C是作用,D增加了某种需求,都是某个信息的发展或者是作用。


根据上述分类,了解了推断题到底要求我们推断的内容,接下来我们就可以进行具体做题层面的操作啦。

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