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托福考试周总结

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托福考试周总结
 

口语

➤Task 1

Your friend is going to a new school, give some advice to help he/she make new friends.

➤Task 2

Some people like reading electronic books on computers or on other devices, which some people like reading paper books. Which one do you prefer and why?

➤Task 3

Disagrees with the thesis presentation problem because student can research information on website and read more is more useful.

➤Task 4

Peak-end theory,人们对于过去经历的记忆总是记住开始和结尾的部分。教授举例说他有次去度假,前几天下雨没法玩,后来天气好了就去鲸鱼表演(开头),最后一天一个的聚会上认识了一个他们小镇的人于是交了朋友(结尾),后来当别人问他觉得这次旅行怎么样的时候,他说就记住了,去看鲸鱼和他交的朋友。

 

【关键词】鲸鱼:whale

 

➤Task 5

The man is the header of campus newspapers and one of his writer make mistakes about professor’s information.

男生是学校报纸的编辑,他手下有一个作者写文章,不以事实为中心,写了一篇关于他们教授的文章,把教授的背景知识背景知工作年限都写错了。

➤Task 6

Animals survive in challenges

这是一篇生物学讲座,它围绕灵长类动物适应住在树上的挑战展开话题。

第一,具有抓紧物体的能力。当灵长类动物跳跃到新的树枝时,他们不确定这些树枝是否强壮到能支撑他们的重量。所以,他们必须有能力抓紧已经所处的树枝。比如,猴子有一种特殊的尾巴,可以缠绕在树枝上,紧紧抓住树枝。这样,即使他们从树上滑落,也能得救。

第二,拥有识别出物体处于空中的位置的能力。有时候,树枝间隔距离大,灵长类动物需要跃向其他树枝。所以,他们需要有能力判断出树枝的间隔和他们跳跃的距离。比如,猴子的眼睛彼此紧邻,这可以帮助他们更好地判断出树枝的位置和之间的距离。

 

【关键词】 讲座:lecture   尾巴:tail

·绕灵长类动物适应住在树上的挑战: some primates have adapted to the challenges of living in the tree.

·具有抓紧物体:grasp and hold on to objects

·识别出物体处于空中的位置:easily tell where objects are located in space 
写作

➤Writing 1

论点:棕榈油可以应用到很多领域,近些年得到广泛关注。专家认为要进一步扩大棕榈树的生长。

  分论点一:种植棕榈树可以保护森林。因为棕榈树的产油量高于其它农作物,所以需要的土地相对较少,可以避免过度砍伐森林。

  分论点二:将棕榈油用作生物柴油可以减少碳排放。碳排放降低了,对缓解全球气候变化有积极的影响。

分论点三:生产棕榈油可以缓解贫困。大部分棕榈树都是由低收入的农民种植的。并且,棕榈树相比于其他农作物利润更高,所以可以提高这部分农民的生活水平。

 

听力主要观点提取:

  总论点:种植棕榈树有消极的影响不应该扩大规模。

  分论点一:种植棕榈树会进一步加剧森林的砍伐。因为,棕榈油可以用在很多方面,如食品和化妆品。因此,全球对棕榈油的需求在不断提升。这会促使农民砍伐更多森林来种植棕榈树。一个国家,每分钟就有7000平方米的森林被砍伐来生长棕榈树。

  分论点二:燃烧棕榈油制成的生物柴油会增加碳排放。汽车使用生物柴油会产生较少的碳排放。但是,生产棕榈树的过程却会产生更多碳排放。因为,农民需要先将土地上的植被烧掉来种植棕榈树,在烧的过程中,会燃烧一种泥煤。泥煤中含有大量的碳,所以会产生更多的碳排放。

分论点三:从长期来看,农民的收入不会提高。一开始,是农民生产棕榈树。到后来,大规模的公司会开始种植棕榈树并控制利润。

 

【关键词】 棕榈油: palm oil   砍伐森林:deforestation  化妆品:cosmetics   泥煤:peat  

碳排放:carbon emission  

 

范文:

 

The reading argues that palm oil production has positive effects and is supposed to be expanded. On the contrary, the listening believes that there are serious negative effects and the expansion of palm oil production is not a good idea.

First, the passage states that palm tree farming helps preserve forests. However, the lecture denies the idea by saying that the increasing demand for palm trees because of its widely use in food and cosmetics products forces farmers to clear more forests to grow more palm trees. It results in increasing deforestation around the world.

In addition, the professor says that though it is true that using biodiesel made from palm oil can produce fewer emissions. Growing palm trees, however, generates a lot more carbon emissions, which contradicts the idea proposed in the reading. In order to gain the land for palm tree farming, farmers clear the land by burning plants including peat which stores huge amounts of carbon. This burning process will send out large quantities of carbon emissions.

Finally, the reading holds that producing palm oil helps poor small-scale farmers. The professor points out that they will not control the farms too long. In the long run, the large-scale companies will obtain lands and thus control most profits. Consequently, small-scale farmers will not get much return.

 

 

➤Writing 2

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

The way a person dresses is a good indication of his or her personality or character.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

这是一道观点选择类老题,重复2013年6月15日的考题。

大纲:擒贼先擒王,抓住dress这个词来分析,着装可以反映什么呢。除了性格其实更直接的有很多因素,比如教育程度,文化,经济实力等等。

 

那么我们来找几个分论点:

1. 一个人的着装受文化因素影响也同时反应了文化因素。东方西方的不同,宗教国家和普通国家的不同,南方北方的不同等等都表现了这一点。

2. 经济因素可以绝对服装那么当然也可以被反映出来。富人和穷人,发达地区和贫困地区等等。

 

3. 教育文化水平也是重要的一个因素。学者和白丁,白领和蓝领这些都可以通过着装反映出来。

 

范文:

 

To some, clothes are everything. These people closely follow the latest fashions and take great pride in looking put-together. To others, clothes serve merely a functional purpose. These people regard clothing as practical possessions and nothing more. Most people fall somewhere in between these two perspectives, and I think that looking at how they dress can tell you a lot about what kind of people they are.

This is clearly evident in work environments. Is the person's work uniform dirty, wrinkled, and messily worn?  Or is it pristine and cared for, and seemingly worn with pride?  By taking a look at someone's work clothes, you can easily tell what kind of character they have when it comes to work.  Those who are dedicated and proud of their jobs will keep their uniform in good condition, whereas those who have little love for their jobs will reflect that attitude through their uniform. This type of rule also applies in office environments. If professional dress is mandatory, then the ones who care the most will be the ones most impeccably dressed-they'll be sporting fresh-looking ties, well-ironed shirts, and lovingly-maintained shoes.

You can also tell a lot about a person by the type of clothes they wear when at home.  Are they wearing old, comfortable sweatpants, or tight fashionable jeans? Those who are more tightly wound and care a lot about fashion may be well-dressed all the time, while those who are more laid-back and casual will take the chance to wear more relaxed dress. My best friend Karen, for example, is the type of person who wears casual-but good-looking-clothing everywhere she goes.  She will often wear the same clothes to work as what she wears at home. That's okay because she works at a kindergarten, and she has to be comfortable playing with kids all day.  Just by looking at her clothing, you can tell that she's a down-to-earth and a warm person.

Admittedly, you cannot judge a person by their clothing alone.  Young people, for example, will often change their dress styles from month to month and year to year because they are in the process of discovering themselves.  The impression you get may be very inaccurate or incomplete in these cases. However, after someone is past this stage in their life, clothing can be a fairly reliable indicator of who they are as a person because their lives will follow a far more regular routine.

Clothing can tell us a lot about an individual. Looking at how someone dresses at work or at home can give you insight into their attitudes and the type of person they are. This is probably less the case with younger people since they are still at a stage where their identity is uncertain, but otherwise you can deduce a lot about a person by looking at their clothes.


阅读

➤Reading1

 The Chaco Roads(查科文明的道路)

 

美国一个地方的道路。

首先介绍了建在Pueblo的公路。然后详细说明了两个观点,一种认为这个地方的道路起交通和货物交换的作用,一种认为这种公路是一种精神信仰,没有实际用途。

 

➤Reading2

Essentials of Chinese Art(中国艺术的基本组成要素)

 

第一段:早期的中国艺术关注权力,男性的诉求等,而忽视手工艺术,女性的诉求;

第二段:中国的手工艺术很久远,也很成熟。丝绸, 翡翠之类的也是奢华的象征。还有很多其他形式;

第三段:如书法,建筑一类需要更多创造力,想象力的艺术和需要技艺和人工的手工艺之前是有明确区别,但是慢慢这个区别渐渐模糊;

第四段:像中国的墓碑,纪念雕塑,还有殉葬品,等等可以让人们了解文化和历史;

第五段:中国的书面语是连接各地的重要因素,以前少部分人会写。造就了这一门艺术。

 

【关键词】手工艺术: craft arts  翡翠: jade  奢华:luxury  墓碑: tombstone  殉葬品: sacrificial objects

 

➤Reading3

 Iron and Steel in the United States in the Nineteenth Century(19世纪美国的钢铁业)

 

第一段:18世纪60年代的铁已经可以满足美国的大部分需求。那时候铁质地比较软, 易弯曲,适用于农业使用和机器与工具的制作。因为不能承受更重的重量,所以D发明了新的冶炼方式;

第二段:D Converter形态和工作流程,最后提炼出来的铁就是钢;

第三段:但是D Converter要求稀少的,昂贵的原材料。新的方式解决了这一问题,使用更低廉的铁,解决了这一问题,也成为了主要的冶炼方式。而D Converter将他的一生都奉献给了钢铁生产产业;

第四段:符合冶炼方式变化,轧钢机 等等也发生了变化,并且生产更加集中化;

第五段:冶炼业发展促进原材料集中地成为了冶炼钢铁的中心,也促进了铁路运输等等;

第六段:产业更加一体化,生产销售等等一体化。

第七段:钢铁业的发展也促进了城市建设,摩天大楼,地铁, 管道等等都离不开钢铁。

 

【关键词】轧钢机:rolling mill  冶炼:smelt  钢铁产业:iron and steel industry  原材料:raw material

         一体化:integration  集中化:centralization  摩天大楼:skyscraper  工作流程:working process  


听力

➤Conversation 1

 

小黑板上的Little Dancer Aged Fourteen是法国后印象派画家Degar Degas的一个雕塑作品,1881年在法国博览会展出。难以想象的是,这个雕塑并不是青铜做的,而是蜡。当然,围巾和丝带都是织物,还有头发也是真头发,但这个雕塑的其它部分全部都是蜡做的。

在Degar Degas死后,后人拿它的雕塑做了一个石膏型,然后铸造了很多青铜的复制品。但这并非Degar Degas的本意,而且他也从未授权任何人去这样做。

这篇对话中教授和学生还聊到,说这个雕塑本来是打算参加1880年的法国展览会,但结果第二年,也就是1881年才参展。研究者使用了图像技术,然后发现这个原始的蜡雕塑的头部和脸部被修改过。脸部被放大。头部的角度向上抬起,而不是平视向前。教授说,也许Degar Degas最后一秒改变了主意。

 

【关键词】青铜:bronze  蜡:wax  丝带:ribbon  织物:fabric  石膏型:plaster mold

          展览会:exhibition  图像技术:graphic technology   雕塑作品:sculpture

 

➤Conversation 2

 

有个学生找不到他要写论文用的书,去问图书管理员,管理员问他是不是确定书还在图书馆。他说没有借出去,但是书架上也没有。管理员在电脑上核对了一下说的确是没有借出去,不过书可能放错地方了。(这里提到了一个地方,说很多时候书在被工作人员归类到正确书架子上的时候会被学生丢在那),然后学生说他时间很紧张,问可不可以从另一个书馆借,图书管理员说借到影印版起码要一个礼拜,学生说来不及,图书管理员建议他可以请教授多给一点资料,学生这里好像也有点为难说其实应该早点开始准备的,然后他好像是说要换别的书借了。

 

【关键词】图书管理员:librarian 

 

➤L1

 

每个公司有自己的管理结构,但是怎么知道这个管理结构是有效的,讲座中提到了the Mackinsey Study,从三个方面来说明可帮助公司有效管理。

第一是指导方向,公司的领导是要让员工明白公司的目标,有目标以后再结合适当的刺激措施,这样的话员工的效率更高,举了关于奖金的例子来说明这点的重要性。

第二是责任,即要让员工清楚明白自己的责任有哪些,举了与合伙人公司谈判的例子来说明责任的重要性。

第三是文化,即公司应该创造一个合适的环境,让员工敢于承认错误,提出错误,对于员工提出错误一开始应该表示感谢,然后和员工一起找到解决方案。

 

【关键词】 责任:accountability  奖金:bonus  管理结构:management structure  

有效管理:effective management

 

➤L2

 

讲的是从海藻里面提炼油,然后要催化剂,引入了酶,这里出题了。因为女学生说是不是和人体内的消化酶类似,因为都可以加速反应速度,接下来引入了V-cell。教授说了一句题外话,之后就说V-cell会更强,但问题来了,这种从海藻里提炼油的方式成本太高, 而且会使用更多的淡水!

 

【关键词】 海藻:algae  催化剂:catalyst   酶:enzyme  消化酶:digestive enzyme  

加快反应速度:accelerate the reaction rate   提炼:purify   淡水:fresh water

 

➤L3

 

之前认为火星没有液态水是因为火星表面温度很低,但是后来发现火星表面有很多河流的痕迹,可能由于火星的大气里有很多C02,而CO2是温室气体,所以可以起到保温作用,地面温度升高了,就会有液态水。但是经过进一步的测量(好像是光谱?),火星的大气里没有足够的C02能使它的表面的温度升高到可以形成液态水。

关于这个的话有两个假设, 一个是硫酸和C02发生了一系列复杂的反应把C02弄没了,第二个是...通过检测在岩石里的某样物质,可以间接反应第二个假说是正确的。讨论火星上有没有液态水, 曾经火星很温暖很湿润,有个假设说实际上没有

 

【关键词】 假设:hypothesis  液态水:liquid water  温室气体:greenhouse gas  大气:atmosphere

           硫酸:sulfuric acid  光谱:spectrum   保温:hot insulation

➤L4

 

在贝多芬时期的时候赞助很常见,就是王权贵族们会雇佣音乐家来为自己演奏古典音乐,贝多芬也是被雇佣的人之一,但是他喜欢给雇主们表演他自己的音乐,而且后来随着越来越多的人家里买得起钢琴,人们想要在钢琴上表演贝多芬的音乐,于是就出现了卖乐谱的情况。

后来贝多芬的创作中出现了钢琴上没有的音符,要求钢琴生产者改进钢琴,促进了钢琴产业的发展,再后来贝多芬想要为皇室之外的人表演音乐,于是就出现了公共表演,所以说贝多芬对于现代音乐产业的发展有重要的作用。

 

【关键词】 赞助:patronage  王权贵族:royal patron   乐谱:score  音符:note

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